1. The act of making holes in the ground using your hand, a spade, or some special machine. English = digging.
2. The digging of deep holes and tunnels in the ground in order to find coal, diamonds, gold, and other precious things. English = mining.
3. The removing of earth carefully from a piece of land and to look for the remains of pots, bones, or buildings, in order to discover information about the past. English = excavation.